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Mechanism of the Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Hydroarylation ofBromo-Alkynes Revisited: Hydrogen versus Bromine Migration
Huang, Genping; Cheng, Bing; Xu, Liang; Li, Yahong; Xia, Yuanzhi
2012
发表期刊CHEMISTRY-A EUROPEAN JOURNAL
ISSN0947-6539
卷号18期号:17页码:5401-5415
摘要A comprehensive mechanistic study of the InCl3-, AuCl-, and PtCl2-catalyzed cycloisomerization of the 2-(haloethynyl)biphenyl derivatives of Furstner et al. was carried out by DFT/M06 calculations to uncover the catalyst-dependent selectivity of the reactions. The results revealed that the 6-endo-dig cyclization is the most favorable pathway in both InCl3- and AuCl-catalyzed reactions. When AuCl is used, the 9-bromophenanthrene product could be formed by consecutive 1,2-H/1,2-Br migrations from the Wheland-type intermediate of the 6-endo-dig cyclization. However, in the InCl3-catalyzed reactions, the chloride-assisted intermolecular H-migrations between two Wheland-type intermediates are more favorable. These Cl-assisted H-migrations would eventually lead to 10-bromophenanthrene through proto-demetalation of the aryl indium intermediate with HCl. The cause of the poor selectivity of the PtCl2 catalyst in the experiments by the Furstner group was predicted. It was found that both the PtCl2-catalyzed alkynevinylidene rearrangement and the 5-exo-dig cyclization pathways have very close activation energies. Further calculations found the former pathway would lead eventually to both 9- and 10-bromophenanthrene products, as a result of the Cl-assisted H-migrations after the cyclization of the Ptvinylidene intermediate. Alternatively, the intermediate from the 5-exo-dig cyclization would be transformed into a relatively stable Ptcarbene intermediate irreversibly, which could give rise to the 9-alkylidene fluorene product through a 1,2-H shift with a 28.1 kcal?mol-1 activation barrier. These findings shed new light on the complex product mixtures of the PtCl2-catalyzed reaction. A comprehensive mechanistic study of the InCl3-, AuCl-, and PtCl2-catalyzed cycloisomerization of the 2-(haloethynyl)biphenyl derivatives of Furstner et al. was carried out by DFT/M06 calculations to uncover the catalyst-dependent selectivity of the reactions. The results revealed that the 6-endo-dig cyclization is the most favorable pathway in both InCl3- and AuCl-catalyzed reactions. When AuCl is used, the 9-bromophenanthrene product could be formed by consecutive 1,2-H/1,2-Br migrations from the Wheland-type intermediate of the 6-endo-dig cyclization. However, in the InCl3-catalyzed reactions, the chloride-assisted intermolecular H-migrations between two Wheland-type intermediates are more favorable. These Cl-assisted H-migrations would eventually lead to 10-bromophenanthrene through proto-demetalation of the aryl indium intermediate with HCl. The cause of the poor selectivity of the PtCl2 catalyst in the experiments by the Furstner group was predicted. It was found that both the PtCl2-catalyzed alkynevinylidene rearrangement and the 5-exo-dig cyclization pathways have very close activation energies. Further calculations found the former pathway would lead eventually to both 9- and 10-bromophenanthrene products, as a result of the Cl-assisted H-migrations after the cyclization of the Ptvinylidene intermediate. Alternatively, the intermediate from the 5-exo-dig cyclization would be transformed into a relatively stable Ptcarbene intermediate irreversibly, which could give rise to the 9-alkylidene fluorene product through a 1,2-H shift with a 28.1 kcal?mol-1 activation barrier. These findings shed new light on the complex product mixtures of the PtCl2-catalyzed reaction.
关键词Alkynes Cycloisomerization Density Functional Calculations
收录类别SCI
文献类型期刊论文
条目标识符http://ir.isl.ac.cn/handle/363002/2060
专题青海盐湖研究所知识仓储
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
Huang, Genping,Cheng, Bing,Xu, Liang,et al. Mechanism of the Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Hydroarylation ofBromo-Alkynes Revisited: Hydrogen versus Bromine Migration[J]. CHEMISTRY-A EUROPEAN JOURNAL,2012,18(17):5401-5415.
APA Huang, Genping,Cheng, Bing,Xu, Liang,Li, Yahong,&Xia, Yuanzhi.(2012).Mechanism of the Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Hydroarylation ofBromo-Alkynes Revisited: Hydrogen versus Bromine Migration.CHEMISTRY-A EUROPEAN JOURNAL,18(17),5401-5415.
MLA Huang, Genping,et al."Mechanism of the Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Hydroarylation ofBromo-Alkynes Revisited: Hydrogen versus Bromine Migration".CHEMISTRY-A EUROPEAN JOURNAL 18.17(2012):5401-5415.
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